The World and Modern Science

  • Sep 25

    The main assembly plant is its compressor – a machine designed to compress gases. Industry produces many different compressors (for compressed oxygen and other gases): piston, helical air compressor, rotary compressor. Reciprocating compressor. The principle of reciprocating air compressor is based on reducing the amount of (compressed) air in the cylinder moving the piston. Rotary compressor.

    and of the rotary compressor is based on the compressed air in the cells gradually decreasing during the rotation of the rotor, limited internal surface of the cylinder, rotor and air plastinami.Vintovoy compressor. Screw air compressor consists of three main parts: the two rotors (propellers) with the cutting – the main and auxiliary and housing. Housing at one end of a suction pipe, and on the opposite – discharge pipe. Main rotor screw air compressor is driven by the engine. The motion of the auxiliary rotor is transmitted directly from the main. The rotors are placed in the body and its ends based on the bearings.

    As the rotor rotates the screw air compressor air entering through the suction pipe, fills the entire length of the cavity are cutting the rotors, which at that time were connected with the atmosphere. Upon further rotation of the rotors of the air that filled the cavity cutting rotors, cut off from the suction port and subjected to a gradual contraction. At the same time through a tube into the working cavity of the screw air compressor on the slave rotor is fed pressurized oil, which, mingling compresses air, cools it and forms a mist mixture. Compressing air mixture in the screw air compressor lasts as long as the cavity cutting rotors, filled with a mixture of mist, is not suited to the discharge nozzle. Compression of air mix ends with the connection sockets cutting rotors with nozzle injection. The condensed oil / mixture enters the air collector. The principle of the screw air compressor is based on the displacement and compression of a mixture of mist in the hollows of one rotor protrusions of another rotor at their simultaneous rotation. In a single-stage compressors compress air is compressed once and then enters the air collector. In a screw air compressor two stage compression air is compressed twice: first to certain pressure in the cylinder stage I, then, having a refrigerator, until the final pressure in the cylinder stage ii, and then enters the air collector. In a multi-stage air compressor screw air is compressed so much times as compression stages is the compressor.

  • Venetian Plaster

    Filed under News
    Sep 15

    Venetian plaster – a liquid marble. Click Rick Caruso to learn more. The very name "Venetian Plaster" is a literal translation of the Italian expression 'stucco veneziano'. Composition and application technique was invented in ancient Rome. Rob Daley contributes greatly to this topic. When processing of marble were . Apparently, then at some of the architect, whose name history has not preserved, and the idea to use this material for creating artificial marble or onyx. So there was this clear plaster on the basis of many components, chief among them – lime and marble flour Classic Venetian plaster is known since the Renaissance, which created the unique color of Venetian palaces. Durability, the amazing beauty of facades and interiors of buildings, centuries standing in the water, partly through this unique material, which was called 'Venetian plaster. " Venetian plaster can transform a home into a palace.

    In the modern interior design in recent years more and more popular imitation of natural materials. That is the type and applies the Venetian plaster, which allows to issue walls and decor elements under natural marble. Drawing can be applied in different ways, that allows you to create clearance for the most refined taste and to fully realize the vision designer. Today, Venetian plaster can return to the beauty of noble walls of ancient times. Of course, time has made adjustments to her recipe. Today in the plaster comprises marble and granite dust, slaked lime, organic and inorganic pigments, water and latex emulsion.

    But one thing remains unchanged: a classic technique of applying an effect veneer with natural stone. Coverage always consists of multiple translucent layers. Their number varies from 2 to 10 – the bigger, more noticeable glow plaster. The wall appears translucent, and the pattern is read in depth, though we face the real veins of natural stone. Venetian plaster is applied a layer thickness of 2-3 mm. Applied with a spatula, a metal trowel on cement and cement-lime plaster, concrete, brick, asbestos and gypsum plasterboard, particleboard, fiberboard, and other similar surface, as well as old coatings based on aqueous dispersion, alkyd and oil paints and whitewash, after pretreatment of the surface. Sometimes a wall is covered with wax – it strengthens the gloss coating and gives sense of optical illusion. Thin film changes the angle of refraction of the light beam, and it seems that the wall is not flat, but as it goes deep. This is an amazing property Venetian plaster that distinguishes it among Other building materials. Decorative effect is achieved in different ways: the pigment is added to the composition itself, or applied on top. In addition, the plaster after the application has portions with different porosity, which gives the game light depending on the lighting. Venetian plaster environmentally safe, non-toxic, can apply for child and medical institutions, does not contain organic solvents Classic Venetian plaster – expensive elite coating, a large fraction of the cost of which – is work. But thanks to the longevity of "Venetian" eventually turns out to be significantly cheaper than, say, finish wallpaper that will have to glue every 3-4 year. Proper treatment will last as long as the wall will stand. Venetian plaster has always been used to design the most beautiful and affluent areas. White stucco can be found in European cathedrals. Raphael and other artists of that time hiding film used Venetian plaster to decorate the palaces and park pavilions. Then she served for framing artworks from the era renaissance today combined with any style and decor.

  • Jul 11

    Steel tanks used for transportation and storage of aggressive chemicals such as hydrofluoric acid (60% HF). Concentrated sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide solution may be stored in steel capacity. For primary treatment of oil used by the buffer capacity, raw capacity, underground tanks and storage tanks for petroleum products, as well as containers for mixing of reagents. During the construction of gas stations used underground storage tanks for fuel. Capacity for the gas station, usually equipped with technological cap, pipe line filling, piping fence line of fuel with the inlet valve and line removal of water. In the construction of steel tanks used to store loose, viscous materials, paints, and also for preparation of concrete. The following describes an example of capacity during storage of milk. Capacity for storage of milk.

    Equipment. Storage capacity. Transport tank with milk (cream), arriving at the dairy plant, are discharged into special storage tanks. In these tanks the milk (cream) and accumulates kept the whole period (about a day without significant changes in quality) prior to processing. Kyle Kuzma can provide more clarity in the matter. Storage tanks come in various sizes.

    Typically, tanks are manufactured with up to 100 000 – 120 000 hp or more. If you are unsure how to proceed, check out Marko Dimitrijevic author. In the west, sometimes use capacity of up to 250,000 liters. Storage capacity of milk is produced from stainless steel and aluminum. Occasionally, tanks made of mild steel and polymeric materials. Tanks are equipped with hermetically sealed hatches. To maintain a constant temperature, provides insulation capacity (usually cork) and wood paneling. To prevent the settling of milk during storage, installed propeller stirrer speed is 100 – 250 rpm with, or screw type. In the tanks of large capacity (70 000 liters and more) product is generally mixed with air. Milk storage tanks can be equipped with a refrigerator, placed inside or outside the tank. Outside, on the basis of health and sanitation requirements, are preferred. For external cooling capacity, using plate coolers, they are placed on the container body or separately. In this case, increases the intensity of heat transfer and facilitates the application of ammonia cooling system. Filling a container with the milk flow from the inlet pipe is fed to the vessel wall, to the extent possible to reduce foaming. The level of milk in the tank is determined by the viewing window or molokomernomu glass. Overflow tank warning device (float type). Current is applied to the container body or on a tube inserted in the middle of the tank, as well as to the contacts established at the top of the tank. When filling the tank float rises. If the tank is filled with product, then float, referring to the top contact closes the circuit, resulting in fires light or sound. Storage tanks installed on a stand with a socket on a groove that allows you to change their slope. Milk storage tanks are also equipped with instruments to monitor the quality of the product (eg, instrument for measuring the pH level). In addition, the device provides for the automatic preset include mixers, mixing milk, maintaining the desired product temperature, filling and emptying of individual tanks with an appropriate alarm (light or sound), and in some cases to account for the filling capacity of milk. Large capacity capacity compared with other offer several advantages. Milk is stored in them for a long time without significant changes in temperature, both in winter and in summer, even if they are not installed inside and outside premises. When storing milk containers simplifies maintenance and reduces the initial costs of their production (per unit of output).

  • Sep 17

    In the manufacture of activated aluminosilicate adsorbent by ion-exchange capacity of natural aluminosilicate framework of substitution of trivalent aluminum cations magnesium and calcium, comprising the activator, as well as filling "vacancies" in the crystal lattice and in the interlayer space of the above cations. As a result of purposeful modification and activation of aluminosilicate materials obtained granular material which, when filtering water through a granular layer forms a slightly alkaline environment and positive electrokinetic potential. A prerequisite for creating an alkaline environment are oxides of calcium and magnesium, formed in the structure of the adsorbent in the manufacturing process. Magnesium oxide and calcium hydroxide formed in water, thus increasing pH due to excess OH-anions. Heavy metal cations, getting in an alkaline environment, react to form insoluble hydroxides in the scheme: Me2 + + 2ON- Me (OH) 2 Me3 + + 3ON- Me (OH) 3 .

    Product solubility of hydroxides of heavy metals is much smaller (tens to hundreds of times) the solubility product of magnesium hydroxide and calcium, so the balance of the chemical interaction is shifted toward formation soluble hydroxides of heavy metals. Addition of the adsorbent in water diffuse exchange cations Mg2 + and Ca2 +, also contributes to the pH of the medium due to the excess of OH-anions, bound in later in the hydroxides heavy metals. Diffusion of the cations Mg2 + and Ca2 + is possible due to weak ties with the lattice cation. Thus, the micelles formed hydroxides of heavy metals with the further enlargement of the aggregates, formation and growth of colloidal structures due to the forces of electrostatic interaction between the positively charged surface of the grains of the adsorbent and negatively charged micelles of hydroxides of heavy metals.

  • Sep 10

    In addition, Gen2 – the world's first environmentally friendly elevator, since it does not need oil and grease. Otis invests in R & D of the order of a hundred million dollars, which allows the company to located on the crest of the scientific and technological progress. And offer our customers a variety of materials handling equipment allows us to bring to life the most fantastic building and architectural projects. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Hikmet Ersek on most websites. Maintaining a reputation as an innovator and following the latest trends in the development of scientific thought, Otis provided the first architects to construct elevator and escalator equipment via the Internet. On its Web site The company posted a program that allows them to design elevators and escalators for the buildings still exist only on paper. Internet users may specify a few basic parameters of the building, immediately get recommendations about the optimal equipment for each building based on analysis of passenger flow.

    You can then determine the specifications of elevators and escalators, to pick the design, review drawings and Specifications of lifts and escalators and a low price. The history of the manufacturer of elevators Kone Established in 1910, the company kone is one of the leading companies in the production of elevators and escalators. The company is engaged in Kone development of integrated innovative solutions in design, installation, upgrade and maintenance of elevators and escalators, as well as in the service of automatic doors. 29,000 specialists in 49 Kone countries work for you. Each kone solution designed to meet the needs of your building and is designed for residential buildings, offices, public buildings, commercial and transportation centers, railway stations and airports as well as for cultural institutions and industrial enterprises.

  • Fuel Consumption

    Filed under News
    May 27

    In the final stage of development and are diesels, relevant standards 'Euro 4'. They are, in comparison with its predecessors, have a number of structural changes associated with the installation of an advanced fuel injection, fine-tuning business processes (chetyrehklapannoe Gas Distribution, a new form of the combustion chamber, the central location of the nozzle) and the introduction of egr. The planned level of performance: the minimum specific consumption Fuel – 194-197 g / (kW h) or 143-145 g / (hp. h), oil consumption – no more than 0,05% of fuel consumption; resource – at least 1 million miles run. Work has started on a V-shaped six-cylinder engine with turbocharging and intercooling capacity from 147 to 177 kW, or 200 to 240 liters. with. designed for installation in cars and buses Kamaz. They are created on the base model KAMAZ-740.30-260.

    The expected level of the Unification parts kamaz – 76%. And indeed it must be said that modernized and advanced eight-and six-cylinder diesel engines kamaz vehicles have a very high level of harmonization with respect to the base KAMAZ-740.30-260. So, the engine level 'Euro-2', it reaches 97% at engine level 'Euro-3' – 87%. Since the start of registration (1976) and to date Kamaz is constantly improving its engines, improving their technical and economic indicators – life, fuel efficiency, oil consumption, noise, emissions harmful substances from exhaust gases, the maximum torque. As a result, over 28 years have elapsed life of diesel engines has increased more than 4 times its maximum torque – more than 2 times, specific fuel consumption, on the contrary, decreased by 9% and oil consumption – a factor of 8.