The World and Modern Science

  • Sep 17

    In the manufacture of activated aluminosilicate adsorbent by ion-exchange capacity of natural aluminosilicate framework of substitution of trivalent aluminum cations magnesium and calcium, comprising the activator, as well as filling "vacancies" in the crystal lattice and in the interlayer space of the above cations. As a result of purposeful modification and activation of aluminosilicate materials obtained granular material which, when filtering water through a granular layer forms a slightly alkaline environment and positive electrokinetic potential. A prerequisite for creating an alkaline environment are oxides of calcium and magnesium, formed in the structure of the adsorbent in the manufacturing process. Magnesium oxide and calcium hydroxide formed in water, thus increasing pH due to excess OH-anions. Heavy metal cations, getting in an alkaline environment, react to form insoluble hydroxides in the scheme: Me2 + + 2ON- Me (OH) 2 Me3 + + 3ON- Me (OH) 3 .

    Product solubility of hydroxides of heavy metals is much smaller (tens to hundreds of times) the solubility product of magnesium hydroxide and calcium, so the balance of the chemical interaction is shifted toward formation soluble hydroxides of heavy metals. Addition of the adsorbent in water diffuse exchange cations Mg2 + and Ca2 +, also contributes to the pH of the medium due to the excess of OH-anions, bound in later in the hydroxides heavy metals. Diffusion of the cations Mg2 + and Ca2 + is possible due to weak ties with the lattice cation. Thus, the micelles formed hydroxides of heavy metals with the further enlargement of the aggregates, formation and growth of colloidal structures due to the forces of electrostatic interaction between the positively charged surface of the grains of the adsorbent and negatively charged micelles of hydroxides of heavy metals.

  • Sep 10

    In addition, Gen2 – the world's first environmentally friendly elevator, since it does not need oil and grease. Otis invests in R & D of the order of a hundred million dollars, which allows the company to located on the crest of the scientific and technological progress. And offer our customers a variety of materials handling equipment allows us to bring to life the most fantastic building and architectural projects. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Hikmet Ersek on most websites. Maintaining a reputation as an innovator and following the latest trends in the development of scientific thought, Otis provided the first architects to construct elevator and escalator equipment via the Internet. On its Web site The company posted a program that allows them to design elevators and escalators for the buildings still exist only on paper. Internet users may specify a few basic parameters of the building, immediately get recommendations about the optimal equipment for each building based on analysis of passenger flow.

    You can then determine the specifications of elevators and escalators, to pick the design, review drawings and Specifications of lifts and escalators and a low price. The history of the manufacturer of elevators Kone Established in 1910, the company kone is one of the leading companies in the production of elevators and escalators. The company is engaged in Kone development of integrated innovative solutions in design, installation, upgrade and maintenance of elevators and escalators, as well as in the service of automatic doors. 29,000 specialists in 49 Kone countries work for you. Each kone solution designed to meet the needs of your building and is designed for residential buildings, offices, public buildings, commercial and transportation centers, railway stations and airports as well as for cultural institutions and industrial enterprises.

  • Fuel Consumption

    Filed under News
    May 27

    In the final stage of development and are diesels, relevant standards 'Euro 4'. They are, in comparison with its predecessors, have a number of structural changes associated with the installation of an advanced fuel injection, fine-tuning business processes (chetyrehklapannoe Gas Distribution, a new form of the combustion chamber, the central location of the nozzle) and the introduction of egr. The planned level of performance: the minimum specific consumption Fuel – 194-197 g / (kW h) or 143-145 g / (hp. h), oil consumption – no more than 0,05% of fuel consumption; resource – at least 1 million miles run. Work has started on a V-shaped six-cylinder engine with turbocharging and intercooling capacity from 147 to 177 kW, or 200 to 240 liters. with. designed for installation in cars and buses Kamaz. They are created on the base model KAMAZ-740.30-260.

    The expected level of the Unification parts kamaz – 76%. And indeed it must be said that modernized and advanced eight-and six-cylinder diesel engines kamaz vehicles have a very high level of harmonization with respect to the base KAMAZ-740.30-260. So, the engine level 'Euro-2', it reaches 97% at engine level 'Euro-3' – 87%. Since the start of registration (1976) and to date Kamaz is constantly improving its engines, improving their technical and economic indicators – life, fuel efficiency, oil consumption, noise, emissions harmful substances from exhaust gases, the maximum torque. As a result, over 28 years have elapsed life of diesel engines has increased more than 4 times its maximum torque – more than 2 times, specific fuel consumption, on the contrary, decreased by 9% and oil consumption – a factor of 8.