The World and Modern Science

  • Mar 28

    Krurgman, born in 1953, has been awarded the highest award for his contribution to science and analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity. This professor at Stanford University is also a contributor to The New York Times, since 2001, and from his column has repeatedly criticized some decisions of George W. Bush. This is one of the economists prestigious and influential in the world and won the 1991 John Bates Clack medal, awarded every two years by the American Economical association. As indicated by the above information is important to enter the scope, impact and generates his theory that states that trade patterns and location has always been key issues in the economic debate.

    What are the effects of free trade and globalization? What forces are influencing the exponential growth of urban areas across the globe? U.S. professor has developed a new theory to answer these questions, for which has crossed the research data from international trade with economic geography. Krugman’s approach is based on the premise that many goods and services can be produced more cheaply in long series, the stuff of economies of scale, while consumers have to demand an increasing variety of goods and services.

    As a result, production small-scale local economies is being progressively replaced by large-scale production of the world economy, dominated by companies that manufacture similar products and competing. Classical theories on trade patterns argue that countries are different, which explains why some nations export agricultural products while others export industrial goods or steel, for example. But a review of Krugman offers an explanation as to why trade is dominated by countries characterized not only by having similar economic conditions, as argued by the classics, but also for dealing in similar products, one example is Sweden, which both Car imports and exports. According to the professor, this trade makes specialization in large-scale production, which in turn reflected in a decrease in prices and growing a wide variety of consumer goods.

    Economies of scale combined with low transport rates also help explain why people tend to focus on making cities and economic tasks in similar geographic locations. low prices and transport can lead to self-reinforcing these processes through which the metropolitan population growth contribute to the increase in large-scale production, which in turn causes an increase in real wages and a greater diversity of supply of goods and goods: that is stimulated migration to cities. Krugman’s theories have shown that the consequence will be the growth of urban areas increasingly divided into two areas, much like Silicon Valley in California: an area dominated by high technology, surrounded by an expanding periphery much less developed. In 2007, the theory of the mechanisms Recall that last year, the winners were Americans Leonid Hurwicz, University of Minnesota, Eric S. Maskin, Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and Roger B. Myerson, University of Chicago, for their joint contribution to establishing the foundations of the theory for the design of mechanisms, which explains why some business models are more efficient than others.

    “In his first remarks after receiving the prize, Krugman referred to the current global economic crisis and said that although the world economy could face a large-scale recession, surely you can avoid collapse. The winner also praised the efforts of world leaders to overcome the crisis, despite had recently warned that the rescue plan approved in the U.S. “has no rhyme or reason” because they give aid “without conditions or counterparties.”

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  • Erino Tonon

    Filed under News
    Sep 22

    The Treasure, in this in case that, it will have that to equalizar 5,5%.Com the reduction of the taxes charged in the loans for purchase and production and industrial goods, the price of the money does not have to be an obstacle for who intends to invest in the modernization and magnifying of the productive capacity. The expectation, however, it is not of an explosion of the inversions in as the semester. The perspectives for the global economy follow bad, what it is bad for exporting sectors, and the idle capacity of the industry follows elevada.RepercussesO package of the BNDES well was received by executives and entities from classroom. Fernando Bueno, vice-president of the Abimaq, said that the measures will have to allow ' ' desengavetar' ' projects. The doubt is if average the small benefits will arrive at the companies. In the evaluation of executives of the area of industrial goods, the reduction of the interests in the lines of the BNDES is an attempt to revert the strong fall of the fixed investment in the five first months of the year. According to Abimaq, the investments in the productive sector had fallen the same about 25% of January the May in relation the corporative period of 2008.O managing and of operations of the group Randon, Erino Tonon, it explained that the increase of the stated periods and the reduction of the interests for the acquisition of trucks for physical and legal people had been guideline of colloquy of entrepreneurs executives with the minister of the Development, Miguel Jorge, during the commercial mission to Africa at the beginning of this month. In accordance with it, the measure is more important of what the maintenance of the IPI on the product and road semitows in 0% until the end of ano.' ' In financings with almost one hundred months of stated period, exactly a small reduction of the tax of interests makes great diferena' ' , the executive commented.

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  • Published Books

    Filed under News
    Oct 12

    In accordance with the Specialist of the CRC Jose Joaquin Son, new Law 11,638/07 abolished TO DONATE and instituted the obligation of elaboration of the DFC (Demonstration of the Flows of Box). In the case of the public company (that is, those with movable values negotiated in stock market or over-the-counter market), the DVA was also instituted (Demonstration of Added Value). The DFC supplies to a summary of the relative flows of box three atividadesda company: 1. Operational activity; 2. Activity of investments; 3. Activity of financings. Therefore, the DFC allows the user to see as the box transited through the entrances and sadase which was the result of this flow. The DFC already was obligator in the United States since 1987, what it demonstrates the relevance of the alteration brought for Law 11.638/07.

    The DVA shows how much of wealth it was generated by the company and as this wealth it was distributed between the shareholders, employees, suppliers and the government. Although the DVA not to have as much relevance for ends of evaluation of a company, such financial, economic and mainly social demonstration is important for academic, statistical ends and of sectorial analysis. Beyond the institution of these new two financial demonstrations (DFC and DVA), it also had significant modifications how much to the elaboration of the patrimonial rockings, as, for example, the creation of the heading ' ' intangvel' ' in the Permanent Asset and the accounting or ' ' marking mercado' ' of the applications in financial instruments, also derivative (future contracts, forward contracts and options) and substitution of ' ' reserve of reavaliao' ' for ' ' evaluation adjustment patrimonial' '. A question of formal character is if the Companies of Great Transport will have or not that to publish its financial demonstrations. Art. 3 of Law 11,638/07 extended the devices of the Law of the s.a.

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  • North American

    Filed under News
    Sep 5

    The personal consumption also grew beyond the waited one, with expansion of 2,2% in the trimester. The president of the Federal one Reserves (Fed, the central banking of U.S.A.) of Richmond, Jeffrey Lacker, said in day 03 of May that considers reasonable to think that the contraction finishes this year Even so the global activity still is in contraction, now it seems that the rhythm is diminishing, and at some moment still this year the activity goes to beat in the deep one of the well and will start if to expand of new said Lacker, that commands one of the 12 regional divisions of the Fed.Manuteno of the tax of interests americanEm 29 of April the Federal one Reserves, North American central banking, decided for the maintenance of the basic tax of interests of the country between zero and 0,25%. The platform had been instituted in the meeting of December of the Committee of Open Market (Fomc, in the acronym in English). Before this date, the basic tax was in annual 1%. The American central banking affirmed that the rhythm of deterioration of the economy of the country seems to be diminishing, but added that it will continue keeping the tax of interest in bonanza low level for a long period. It enters the months of March and April, the economic activity ‘ ‘ contraction rhythm seems a little more lento' ' , it says communicated after emitted the meeting of the Committee of Monetary Politics (Fomc, in the acronym in English). The information collected for the Fed since March had led to the conclusion of that the expense of the American consumer walks for the stabilization, but still persist the factors that limit retaken – the difficulty in the attainment of credit, the fall in the value of the property and the increase of the unemployment. The resignations, say the Fed, had been one of the exits adopted for the companies in the crisis scene, as well as the reduction of the supplies and the cut in the investments.

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